Ridiculous Rules About

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3 Ridiculous Rules About

Introduction

The gem of quantum physics is called entanglement, and it was first discovered by Schroedinger in 1926. The best way to explain what entanglement is with an example: Imagine two electrons spinning around each other in the same orbit and having their spins entangled (in the same direction). This means that if one electron's spin goes up, then the other's spin also goes up at exactly the same time.

The phenomenon doesn't rely on any time delay or communication between particles; it occurs instantaneously even though they are separated by long distances! Of course, this raises all sorts of questions about how and why such an extraordinary correlation can be produced by Nature—we don't yet understand how she does it! But let me tell you a little story involving two physicists who worked together on some interesting new theories about chemical bonds using QM principles."

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"It will be a long time before we are capable of explaining the origin and maintenance of such an extraordinary quantum correlation. We do not yet understand how Nature creates such gems." -Nathan Rosen

The first reference to "quantum entanglement" can be found in a paper by Nathan Rosen and Albert Einstein. In it, they describe the phenomenon as follows:

"We have just begun to understand that there is something more than ordinary space-time which underlies our world." -Nathan Rosen

There is a wonderful story about two physicists who were discussing some work involving helical molecules. One was a QM believer and the other wasn't. The believer asked his colleague what he thought of the Schroedinger Equation (SE). "Useless!" was the reply. "Suppose we have a helical molecule,(C6H5)3As-O-COCH2CH2As(C6H5)3 and we apply an electric field to it. What do we get?" "Well," said the non-believer, "in that case you would have to solve the SE." "No, you don't!" exclaimed the believer. And so he proceeded to write down the relevant equations and solve them for a helix, obtaining the required molecular orbitals.

The Schroedinger equation is a mathematical description of the wave-like nature of matter and energy. It was derived by Austrian physicist Erwin Schrödinger in 1926, based upon his work on atomic spectra.

`An electron has an energy level which is somewhere between its ground state and excited state: if it's at one point with no external electric field applied, then it will be at another point with an applied electric field; this means that there must be some other way for us to measure this electron's energy without destroying it or making sure that everything within our experiment stays still so we don't mess up our results.*

I am going to ask you to believe that this sort of thing happens all the time in QM (well, chemical physics is full of examples). This is what happened with electron spin entanglement as described in my previous post ("Entanglement: A Gem of Quantum Physics"). Electron spin entanglement is a single phenomenon that involves two particles. It is a physical "gem" because it cannot be explained by classical physics (more about this later).

The story goes something like this: one day, an experienced physicist and his friend were sitting together drinking tea at their favorite café when they decided to discuss quantum mechanics. The friend was not an expert on it; he knew very little about it and felt that most physicists were crazy for believing in these strange things called "quantum states," which are impossible according to classical logic but real nonetheless! The physicist told him why he believed in quantum mechanics despite being skeptical himself -- there were plenty of experiments supporting its validity as well as lots of theories based on them -- but still couldn't explain how some things could be described mathematically so well yet still remain physically impossible.*

Conclusion

There are many other examples of QM gems. QM is full of gems and it has been wonderful to see how the theory has advanced since its inception in the 1920s. The gems are just one part of the story: what about the physics behind them? What can we learn from them? There are many questions that I would like answered by someone who is knowledgeable in quantum-mechanical foundations, but they will be left for another blog post!

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